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What is Dyslexia in youth?

Updated: Dec 1, 2022

By DiverseMinds Research Team

Reading time 10 minutes ⏰

Dyslexia is a neuropsychological disorder that describes difficulties in learning language and word-related skills. People with dyslexia often have problems with reading, writing and spelling.

Dyslexia also affects concentration, short-term memory, math, coordination and communication skills, so inability to concentrate for long periods of time, finding it difficult to make friends, getting angry easily and being slow to respond to other people's feelings are all related signs of dyslexia.

People with dyslexia tend to:

1· Average or above IQ, but their test scores at school are not commensurate with their IQ

2. Feeling "sluggish", low self-esteem and lack of confidence

3. Prone to frustration, emotion and avoidance tactics for study, reading or testing

4. Often "wandering" or daydreaming, easily lost or lost track of time (attention deficit)

5. Frequently add, omit, replace, repeat, reverse or reverse the order of letters, numbers, or words when reading or writing

6. Often left and right, up and down

7. Difficulty in telling or maintaining time, being on time, learning to grasp information in a particular order, or completing tasks in a particular order

8. Incorrect pronunciation of words with many letters; Switch the order of short words, words, or syllables when you speak

9. Thinking ability is often low, so I find it difficult to deal with and think about problems in my head

What are the manifestations of dyslexia?

They tend to early performance hyperactive, good crying, external stimulation sensitive and easy to overreact.

In early childhood, some language development problems of varying degrees occur, such as speaking late, pulling hair, biting nails, throwing things, crying, aggressive tendency, lack of purpose in action, over-reaction to stimuli, poor partner communication, lack of language understanding and expression, etc. This makes children have difficulty adjusting to groups, and their cognitive development is unbalanced or they are interested in certain narrow areas and lack attention to the activities of others.

In the early school years, there are more obvious cognitive differences, such as poor visual cognition, difficulty in coordination, clumsy fine movements, communication and writing difficulties, etc.

After entering school, they have difficulty in general cognition and special learning skills.

1. Difficulty understanding language

Language understanding and language expression poor, even if some can say a few words, but the pronunciation of obvious difficulties. Often "not listening", ignoring parents or teachers, is likely to be seen as bad manners.

2. Language barrier

Will speak late, often omit consonants to speak, sentences with less relative words. Speech comprehension is good and language expression is difficult.

3. Dyslexia

Omission or addition of words in reading, "words jammed" or too urgent in reading, byte order disorder, missing lines, visual inversion in reading and writing, inability to read word by word, digit confusion and reversal in calculation; Silent reading does not concentrate, easy to use finger line reading.

4. Visual spatial disturbance

For example, p is regarded as Q, B as D, M as W, WM as MW, 6 as 9, and part as accompany. When calculating, forget the calculation process of carry or dislocation, straight calculation arrangement error, copy wrong copy missing questions, numeric order reversed, numeric memory is poor, resulting in quantity concept difficulty and application problems difficult to calculate.

5. Dysgraphia

Lack of active handwriting, clumsy hand skills (e.g., unable to use chopsticks, awkward button dressing, difficulty in holding pen, poor drawing), missing partial parts of writing or misspelling, sloppy and ugly writing, daubing too much, and many wrong characters.

6. Emotions and behavior

It would be harder to concentrate.

Causes of dyslexia

Congenital differences in the brain's "hardware" for processing words make it difficult to grasp the connections between the sounds, shapes and meanings of words. There is often a genetic component to the condition, which is more common in men than women. This does not represent brain damage, but rather an abnormal feature of brain development.

1. Physiological factors

(1) Children in the fetal period, after birth due to some disease injury caused by mild brain injury or mild brain dysfunction.

(2) Genetic factors. Some learning skills disorders are hereditary and can be seen by fathers, grandfathers or other relatives of children.

(3) Physical and mental development lags behind the development level of children of the same age. Slow deciduous teeth, slow walk and talk, very short stature, etc. Defective sensory function or poor motor coordination.

(4) Physical diseases. If the child is weak and ill, often absent from school, will make the continuity of the lessons learned, learning content is not connected, will naturally lead to learning difficulties; Some children have more small movements in class, or attention deficit, can not concentrate, will also lead to learning difficulties.

2. Environmental factors

(1) Poor family environment. Due to parents working outside for a long time or the tension between family members and other reasons, children do not receive adequate caresses from adults at an early age, especially the lack of maternal love.

(2) Children are not well educated at an early age, and abundant environmental stimulation and education are not provided in the critical period of children's early growth and development.

(3) Inappropriate learning content and education methods make children weariness. Some parents are eager for their children to become successful, and they encourage them to pull out the seedlings, not according to the physical and mental characteristics of children's education, often in the content of education, way, method in violation of the law of education. Such as preschool children primary school, primary school children junior high school.

3. Nutrition and metabolism

Studies have confirmed that children's learning difficulties are related to nutrition metabolism, insufficient trace elements or unreasonable diet, and nutritional imbalance can affect intellectual development. In the past, it was thought that inadequate iodine intake affected children's intelligence, and lithium affected children's personality traits, which in turn affected learning. Studies have shown that the content of trace elements zinc and copper in the hair of children with learning difficulties is significantly lower than that of normal children, and iron is also an important factor affecting academic performance.

4. Psychological factors

Children's learning difficulties are closely related to psychological factors. It has been known in the past that a large number of studies have further confirmed that children's learning difficulties exist universal psychological problems. It is generally observed that children with learning difficulties have low learning motivation, lack of motivation, poor interest in learning, emotional volatility, volitional disorders, cognitive disorders and low level of self-awareness.

In recent years, scientific research has shown that learning difficulties are caused by delayed cerebellum development. If cerebellum function cannot be played effectively, it will lead to all kinds of learning difficulties.

Since each person's cerebellar development is different, the symptoms of learning difficulties are not exactly similar and often overlap. Since the cerebellum is an important information processing center in learning, it can "automate" our abilities. With automation functions, many things and skills in daily life can be done directly after we learn them without thinking.

Once the cerebellum can't automate effectively and has to relearn everything it does, it's likely to make reading and writing, motor coordination, relationships... These ordinary people can easily learn life skills into a puzzle, and even into a disaster and nightmare, no matter how hard to struggle, but always stuck in a helpless dilemma.

What are the effects of dyslexia


As a result of subscription-based writing and frequent failure in examinations, children gradually lose interest in learning and become less efficient, creating a vicious circle in which their performance deteriorates.

Behavioral emotion:

Disgusted with writing and schoolwork, and afraid to face failure, often uncooperative behavior to escape and cover up. Studies show that about 30 percent of children suffer from concentration disorders, looking around or daydreaming during class.

Personal Image:

Often misunderstood as naughty or lazy before diagnosis, leading to a low self-image and lack of confidence.

At home:

Failure of parents to understand or refuse to face the problem can damage the parent-child relationship and increase the psychological burden on children. Therefore, parental acceptance helps children express their inner feelings and overcome obstacles.


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